Updates? Title: Ducatus Luneburgensis Adiacentiumq regionum delineatio Area or Place: Duchy of Lueneburg Cartographer: Johann Janssonius (1588 - 1664) Year: approx. In 1446 he was followed by his brother, Frederick the Pious, who abdicated, however, in 1457 in favour of his sons, Bernard and Otto, in order to enter the Franciscan abbey at Celle. Only the Duke's bodyguard and the soldiers guarding the residence in Celle were in the permanent employ of the dukes. [22], Until the 17th century there were very few standing armies. Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburgball Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg ... Preceded by. George William soon displaced John in Lüneburg, but had to cede Calenberg to John, and also the Principality of Grubenhagen, which had been acquired by the House of Lüneburg in 1617.[11]. In 1671 the barony of Dannenberg went back to the Welf line in Celle. When the United States announced its independence from Great Britain in 1776, the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg was a sovereign, independent state. [15], In the Principality of Lüneburg, in addition to the chancery court and the courts at Amt level there existed numerous aristocratic patrimonial courts (Patrimonialgerichte), whose responsibilities were confined to the jurisdiction of specific groups of people and areas. Only with the emergence of Celle as the ducal seat in the middle of the 15th century did it take a clear shape, although individual advisors were members of the duke's inner circle for a long time.[14][15]. You may use an asterisk as a wildcard. [12], Personal disagreements between the brothers Ernest and Francis in 1539 led to the emergence of a domain at Gifhorn, the so-called Duchy of Gifhorn. Detailed information about the coin 1 Goldgulden, Bernhard, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, … A New & Exact Map of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lunenburg (Duchy of Braunschweig - Lüneburg) This is an original, old-colored copper engraved map of the Duchy of Braunschweig - Lüneburg by Herman Moll, from around 1720. [12], When Duke Henry went against a gentleman's agreement with his brother William and married Ursula of Saxe-Lauenburg in 1569, he had forsake sharing the government of the principality and was compensated instead with the Amt of Dannenberg and the Klosteramt of Scharnebeck. Consequently his efforts were aimed primarily at the redeeming them again (Wiedereinlösung). Herzogtum Lauenburg County On 31 December 2011the Duchy of Lauenburg County (Kreis Herzogtum Lauenburg) had an area of 1,263 km 2, with a population of nearly 187,500.Nearly 100,000 of them are living in the cities of Geesthacht, Lauenburg/Elbe, Mölln, Ratzeburg (seat),Schwarzenbek and the municipality of Wentorf bei Hamburg. When William II of Lüneburg died in 1369 without a son, the first house of Lüneburg became extinct. After several early divisions, Brunswick-Lüneburg re-unified under Duke Magnus II (d. 1373). For example, they were able to considerably increase their estate in the region of Gifhorn through the purchase of the village of Fallersleben, the County of Papenteich and Wettmarshagen. Because of his role in the Hildesheim Diocesan Feud and the associated political opposition to Emperor Charles V, Henry was forced to abdicate in 1520 in favour of his sons Otto and Ernest the Confessor. George William, often called the "heath duke" (Heideherzog), led the princely court during its final flourish. The Kammerrat was responsible for key policy decisions, particularly in financial matters and the area of foreign policy, while the duties of the chancery were restricted merely to administration. The chancery was headed by the chancellor who was also a scholar. But reconciliation with the town of Lüneburg in 1562 and the associated acquisition of part of the principality's debt and imperial taxes by the town played a major role in easing the parlous financial situation. [22], With the advent of firearms in the 15th century, mercenaries were increasingly engaged; they were committed to serve for a particular conflict and then discharged from the service. Relief shown pictorially. In 1530, Ernest signed the Augsburg Confession, and brought back with him the Augsburg reformer Urbanus Rhegius, who was largely responsible for the implementation of the Reformation in Lüneburg over the succeeding decades. Get Prince of Wolfenbuttel essential facts. To search an expression, simply put quotation marks around it. [7] The Celle dukes, Bernard and Henry had emerged victorious from the conflict to be sure, but faced huge financial problems as a result. The Celle advocate (Vogt), the chancellor and the vice-chancellor also belonged to the government. Ducatus Luneburgensis Adiacentiumq regionum delineatio (Duchy of Lüneburg) This is an original, old-colored copper engraved map of the Duchy of Lüneburg by Johann Janssonius (1588 - 1664) from 1640. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). You may use an asterisk as a wildcard. Göttingen, 1922, Martin Krieg: Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Amtsbezirke im ehemaligen Fürstentum Lüneburg, p.103ff. For example, Celle was still responsible for foreign policy issues and the Gifhorn nobility remained part of the Lüneburg estates. In 1593, a new office of Kammerrat was created, following the adoption of a new "Chancery and Government Ordinance", to which only the governor, the Celle advocate and the chancellor reported. Maps by numerous cartographers, as well as Willem and Joan Blaeu. It existed from 1269 until 1705 and its territory lay within the modern-day state of Lower Saxony in Germany. Find link is a tool written by Edward Betts.. searching for Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg 32 found (162 total) alternate case: duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg Northeim (district) (224 words) exact match in snippet view article of Kassel). https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Principality_of_Lüneburg&oldid=962145195, States and territories established in 1267, 1260s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire, 1705 disestablishments in the Holy Roman Empire, Former states and territories of Lower Saxony, Articles with German-language sources (de), Lower Saxony articles missing geocoordinate data, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 June 2020, at 10:21. Koeman, C. Atlantes Neerlandici, Bl 16 A Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. [3], The Principality of Lüneburg was created by the division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a state that had been formed in 1235 from the allodial lands of the Welfs in Saxony and given as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a nephew of Henry the Lion. When Duke Francis died childless in 1549, the territory of Gifhorn went back to Celle. As a final resort there was the option of appealing to the imperial chamber court (Reichskammergericht) in Wetzlar. In the 16th century several Welf secondary lines emerged which received their own territories: Following his marriage to lady-in-waiting Metta von Campen in 1527, Duke Otto relinquished his participation in the government of the principality, and was compensated with the Amt of Harburg as his own territorial lordship. The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor. Move to "Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg" In order to conform to the usual convention, e.g. The old office Kammerrat was replaced by a privy councillor (Geheime Rat) who was primarily responsible for matters of foreign policy. Add Prince of Wolfenbuttel to your PopFlock.com topic list or share. English: The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical ducal state from the late Middle Ages until the late Early Modern era within the North-Western domains of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, in what is now northern Germany. The House of Brunswick originated from the Italian House of Este. 2, p. 593ff. For example, there were so-called "internal, stake, fence, village, road and field courts" (Binnen-, Pfahl-, Zaun-, Dorf-, Straßen- und Feldgerichte. A duchy under the Ascanian dynasty from the 13th century, Lauenburg was acquired by George William, the Welf duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle, in 1702. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/place/Lauenburg-former-duchy-Germany. [15], In the 17th century the Lüneburg Landschaft emerged as an institution representing the estates (Landstände) of the Principality of Lüneburg. 676 Related Articles [filter] Following the death of Otto, his two sons split the duchy in 1267 or 1269, into subordinate principalities; Brunswick going to Albert and Lüneburg to John. Following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. The duchy was abolished in 1918. Corrections? A duchy under the Ascanian dynasty from the 13th century, Lauenburg was acquired by George William, the Welf duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle, in 1702. In 1539, their youngest brother, Francis, who had also shared the reins of power since 1536, also abdicated and was given the Amt of Gifhorn, leaving Ernest the Confessor to rule alone.[2]. According to Welf house rules and the desire of William, Duke Magnus II Torquatus of Brunswick would have been the rightful heir. The eldest son, Francis Otto assumed power in 1555, but abdicated as early as 1559 in favour of his brothers, Henry and William. At that time a princely council evolved, formed mainly of members of the Lüneburg ministeriales. However, after Ernest's death in 1611, and given the difficulty of ever new divisions, the remaining brothers made another agreement in 1612. These offices are mentioned up to the 14th century, but had largely lost their political influence, by the turn of that century. The capital is Lüneburg and the population is around 353,000. Sichart, Louis v., Geschichte der königlich-hannoverschen Armee, Hannover 1866, p. 1 ff. [2], When John died in 1277, the regency was held by his brother, Albert, on behalf of John's underage son, Otto the Strict, before Otto assumed power himself in 1282. Emperor Charles IV, however, considered it an imperial fiefdom, however, and granted the principality to Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg and his uncle Wenceslas, thus precipitating the Lüneburg War of Succession. The butler and the chamberlain were initially supplied by the vom Berge family and, when they died out, the von dem Knesebecks became the chamberlains and the von Behrs were the butlers. Detailed information about the coin 1 Brakteat, Wilhelm, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with pictures and collection and swap management : mintage, descriptions, … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Duke Otto was followed by his sons, Otto III of Lüneburg and William of Lüneburg. The troops were deployed during this period in several European wars, including those in Venice, Spain and the Netherlands. When Otto died in 1549, the Amt of Harburg should have reverted to the dukes of Celle, but Otto's son, Otto the Second, succeeded in 1560 in having a new regulation added to the severance agreement of 1527. The chancery court also acted as a court of appeal as did, from 1536, the royal court in Celle that was permanently in session. He also continued the "systematic acquisition policy" (planmässige Erwerbspolitik) in the Lüneburg principality that had operated since the time of Otto the Child, "rounding off the Lüneburg allodial estate" (Arrondierung des Lüneburger Allodialbesitzes) through the purchase of numerous lands and rights, including those of Bleckede and Hitzacker, the County of Dannenberg and the County of Wölpe.[4]. To search an expression, simply put quotation marks around it. )[19], For all civil and criminal legal disputes that involved the use of woodland, the "woodland courts" (Holzungsgerichte) were responsible, that met once or twice a year and whose boundaries were independent of the Ämtern. They drew lots: the lot fell to the second youngest brother, George, who married Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1617. The principality was named after its first capital, Lüneburg (also called Lunenburg in English), which was ruled jointly by all Brunswick-Lüneburg lines until 1637. It existed from 1269 until 1705 and its territory lay within the modern-day state of Lower Saxony in Germ After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. Search tips. Even though Francis tried to force through his full sovereignty over his domain, important sovereign rights were retained by the ducal house in Celle. Maps in Latin. [1] From 1378, the seat of the principality was in Celle. The Duchy of Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Lunenburg, is a small constitutional monarchy on the northern border of the Holy Roman Empire.It is bordered by Denmark to the north and Brandenburg, Brunswick and Verden to the south. In addition to participating in legislation and approving taxes, it had a right to represent various administrative bodies and was thus involved in the administration of the Principality. Importantly, they were also the first level of jurisdiction for all civil disputes and lesser criminal cases. [16], Beginning in the 13th century, advocacies (Vogteien) emerged in the Principality of Lüneburg as providers of local administration, sometimes in parallel with the existing magistracies and sometimes based on them. The instruction issued by their father in 1318 whereby the principality would be divided after his death between Otto III and his brother, William II, was ignored by the brothers and in 1330 they assumed joint control of an undivided state. Harburg remained an integral part of the principality; the ducal chancery in Celle continued to be responsible for border and territorial issues, the noble knights the Amt of Harburg continued to participate in the Lüneburg estates assembly and enfeoffed by the duke in Celle. He ruled first over the Principality of Calenberg, a subdivision of the duchy, then over the Lüneburg subdivision. [2][5], The town of Lüneburg supported the Wittenbergs and took the opportunity to escape from the immediate influence of the duke, destroying the ducal castle on the Kalkberg on 1 February 1371 and forcing him to relocate his residence to Celle. In addition to their own administration, they also ran their own lesser jurisdictions; the chancery court (Kanzleigericht) in Celle was only responsible for dealing with major offences. [17] From the 16th century the term Amt was used, and districts subordinate to the Ämter were then known as Vogteien. Since the 16th century these courts lost their influence and disputes about forested land were decided by other courts. Here the local families, the von Bernstorffs and the von Lüneburgs, were not only responsible for lower and higher courts, but also ran the administration of the principality on behalf of the duke. When the Principality of Lüneburg emerged as a result of the division of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1269, the domain of the Lüneburg princes consisted of a large number of territorial rights in the region of Lüneburg. [7] So when they appeared before the town of Lüneburg with a fresh request for funds in September 1392, they had to agree to a significant treaty, the so-called Lüneburg Sate,[8] in which the estates were granted numerous privileges and the dukes had to submit to the authority of a council of the landowners of the estates, in return for a loan of 50,000 marks. During his reign the baroque theatre was built that is still open today, the French Garden was laid out and palace façade designed in its current baroque form. More serious crimes would be investigated by the Ämter and the sentence pronounced by the chancery court in Celle, once the case had been referred. [19], In the 13th and 14th centuries the regional magistracies (Gogerichte) were responsible for the administration of justice. In 1728 his nephew George Louis, elector of Hanover and, as George I, king of Great Britain and Ireland, was recognized as heir by Emperor Charles VI; thus, Lauenburg became attached to Hanover. Otto asserted his rule through the prosecution of numerous feuds against the lesser nobility, which enabled him to achieve consolidate his ducal authority within the state. When the Harburg line became extinct in 1642, the territory reverted to the lordship of the ducal house in Celle. In medieval times the area had been part of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.Later the majority of it belonged to Hanover and then Prussia He was born into the royal family of Ernest Augustus, the duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and his wife, Sophia of the Palatinate. Further important reforms included the Lutheran Church Order, adopted in 1564, which practically completed the Reformation in Lüneburg, as well as the aulic court and administrative ordinances (the Hofgerichtsordnung and Polizeiordnung). In 1592, after the death of Duke William, the territory was enlarged with the Ämter of Hitzacker, Lüchow and Warpke, but Henry's demands for a transfer of sovereignty were not met. n a city in N Germany, in Lower Saxony: capital of the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 to 1369; prominent Hanse town; saline springs. This family acquired the inheritance of the Guelph family by marriage — around the year 1000 — of Azzo II with Kunigunde of Altdorf, daughter of Welf II. View Videos or join the Prince of Wolfenbuttel discussion. Belonging to the Amt was the so-called Amtshof, which was originally run by the Amtsmann, but from the 17th century was usually leased. [3] At that time, the Principality of Lüneburg included the larger part of the Lüneburg Heath and the Wendland, and measured about 11,000 square kilometres (4,200 sq mi). In 1665, Christian Louis died, and was temporarily succeeded by George's third son John, who usurped the throne over George's second son George William, who then held the Principality of Calenberg. Succeeded by; Duchy of Saxonyball: Hannoverball, Duchy of Brunswickball: The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburgball was a HREball state. Prince of Wolfenbuttel at popflock.com Lauenburg was integrated into Prussia’s Schleswig-Holstein in 1876. After 1536 financial matters were the responsibility of the treasury (Rentenkammer), headed by the treasurer (Rentmeister). The name of the dukedom was drawn from the two largest towns in the territory, Lüneburg and Brunswick. At the 1527 Landtag recess, even those nobles who had been hostile declared their support for the new faith. Under this new arrangement, each of the brothers would exercise power in succession, but only one of them would marry a woman of appropriate rank (so only their children could inherit). 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