Golden trout are generally caught with artificial flies, but fly fishing requires a fly rod and expensive tackle. As a result of extensive pack train collection and stocking efforts over the last century, they can be found in nearby Cottonwood Lakes and Mulkey Creek, as well as several watersheds in the Sierra Nevada. Human use of streams, lakes, and surrounding watersheds for recreation has greatly increased with population expansion. Project Description Advancing the Sierra Meadows Strategy, CalTrout completed a Golden Trout Wilderness meadows assessment and prioritization. The trail was built in 1861 by John Jordan for access to Olancha from Visalia. There are currently about 20 golden trout populations in the high mountain lakes of western and southcentral Montana. According to former Regional Forester Doug Leisz, "The Kern Plateau use controversy was the beginning of the preservationists vs. use fight which has since touched public lands over the entire country," although an argument can be made that the battle over the Hetch Hetchy Valley with John Muir was the beginning.[5]. STRIKE ZONE $60.00. Past volcanic activity created the hot springs as well as Groundhog Cone and the Golden Trout Volcanic Field. This legendary trout fishing region is among the best in the Western U.S. The California Golden Trout is often cited as being the most beautiful of the salmonids. The golden trout is California's state fish. Join us in celebrating a half-century of taking action for California’s fish, water, and people. Elevations range from about 680 feet (210 m) to 12,900 feet (3,900 m). The golden trout is a California species that was introduced in Montana in 1907. The Volcano Creek Golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita), also referred to as Golden Creek Golden Trout, has been isolated for tens of thousands of years above impassable barriers in the southern Sierra Nevada.Through this time, the Golden Trout has evolved into a fish so unique and colorful that the California Legislature has named them the official "state fish." California golden trout Widely regarded as one of the most beautiful trout in the world. The wilderness area is bordered on the northeast and northwest by the high peaks of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. Generally these new waters are at high elevations and may include stretches of stream above impassible fish barriers. After a mile there is reliable water in the form of a creek. of streams outside their native range, including in Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. They can grow to 19-20 cm (about 8 in.) jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_render', function(event, formId, currentPage){if(formId == 45) {if(typeof Placeholders != 'undefined'){ It is the State Freshwater Fish of California and has long been recognized for its unparalleled beauty. The transition from relatively frequent understory fires to less frequent, but catastrophic, crown fires can have a severe impact on fish habitat and wipe out populations with narrow habitat ranges. The golden trout is also native to Golden Trout Creek and Volcano Creek, which can offer some great fishing for goldies. GOLDEN TROUT $60.00. Sometimes there are spots on the tail and along the back like spotted trout, and there is usually a red underbelly that begins at the lower jaw, like a cutthroat. However, you can catch golden trout with bait or lures. These fish are native to the upper South Fork of the Kern River and Golden Trout Creek in the southern Sierra-Nevada Mountains of California and were historically found in about 450 miles of stream Email* In addition, there was an epidemic of insect damage in the commercial timber, which was estimated at 30 million board feet. Due to the lack of natural predators in their native range, they are more active during the daytime than most other trout species. Severe grazing in meadow streams can cause down cutting resulting in meadows drying out and reductions in streamflow. But, because no new facts were presented, the Forest Service went ahead with the timber sale which included building an access road. The golden trout is native only to the upper Kern River basin in Tulare and Kern Counties, California. From shop MountainCreekAnglers. The trip begins on a mostly sandy trail leading you North into the Golden trout Wilderness. Improperly managed logging increases sediment in streams, increases solar input which increases stream temperatures, and degrades riparian cover. Within the wilderness are portions of the Kern Plateau, the Great Western Divide's southern extension, and the main stem of the Kern River, the South Fork of the Kern and the Little Kern River. They are capable of growing larger in lakes – the largest Golden trout ever caught, in Virginia Lake (Madera County), weighed 4.5 kg (10 lbs.). (CDFW photo by Michael Mamola.) 52 and is not listed in the California Government Codealongside other symbols and emblems. California Golden trout live in cold, clear mountain streams in meadows at high elevations over 2,300m (about 7,500 ft.). Development of towns and cities often negatively affects nearby streams through alteration for flood prevention, channelization, and water diversion, and increased pollution. The golden trout (Salmo agua-bonita) is native only to California and was named the official state fish by act of the State Legislature in 1947. Golden Trout Lake is just below, supposedly reached by a trail that ends by its eastern edge, though this is barely discernible, especially early in the season when patches of snow remain. Together, these three trout form what is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Trout Complex". For the last three years, biologists have monitored the area and noticed a significant decrease in water due to the drought. The Golden Trout Wilderness is a federally designated wilderness area in the Sierra Nevada, in Tulare County and Inyo County, California. His work bridges the widening gap between academic science and applied conservation policy, ensuring that rapidly developing science informs conservation projects throughout California. Implement revised Conservation Strategy to eliminate non-native trout species. The golden trout is California's state fish. jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_render', function(event, formId, currentPage){if(formId == 37) {if(typeof Placeholders != 'undefined'){ At present, only 400-2,600 ‘pure’ California Golden Trout remain in their native habitat in 5 km (about 3 mi.) Cirque Peak is the high point at 12,894 feet (3,930 m).[2]. The area is traversed by several hundred miles of scenic trails and two wild and scenic rivers (North and South Forks of the Kern River). 5 out of 5 stars (388) 388 reviews $ 4.95 FREE shipping Favorite Add to Rainbow Trout, Brook Trout, Golden Trout, Trout Identification Guide, Vintage Trout Print, Vintage Trout Poster, Trout Fishing, Trout Art BlackSailArt. Golden trout are a small trout sub species. Photo of Great Western Divide in the Golden Trout Wilderness. (We never share or sell your email address to anyone.). On Sept. 19, 2016, California Dept of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) scientific staff rescued 52 California Golden Trout from Volcanic Creek and nearby wetland meadows in Tulare County. Expanded stocking has introduced them to more than 300 high mountain lakes and 1,100 km (about 680 mi.) Despite its limited distribution, there are two recognized subspecies of golden trout. Swim in the river, hike on some trails, fish for your dinner, and enjoy the serene campsites under golden California … Dr. Lusardi resides at the UC Davis Center for Watershed Sciences and works closely with Dr. Peter Moyle on numerous projects to help inform California Trout conservation policy. The California golden trout is the official state freshwater fish of California. Permits are required for all overnight use and there is a quota in effect for the Cottonwood Pass Trailhead.[9]. California Golden trout take their name from their bright, yellow-gold coloration. Placeholders.enable(); and reach a maximum age of nine years in streams. Wilderness advocates wanted to preserve the plateau, and opposed the Forest Service plan at public meetings. The Golden Trout Campground might be a good place to start this search. Despite numerous translocations to various watersheds, unhybridized California Golden trout are much less abundant in their native range than they once were. [4] A growing market for lumber added more pressure to develop the area and in 1956, a multiple-use management plan was completed that included a timber sale on the plateau. The record stands at 11 pounds. California golden trout are amazing The goal is to restore the ecological health and resilience of meadows and native golden trout populations within the Golden Trout Wilderness. Name* The Little Kern golden trout is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Resulting impacts include water diversions, groundwater pumping, streambed alteration (to protect houses from flooding, construct road crossings, etc. "Data page on the Golden Trout Wilderness", "United States Geological Survey (USGS)Feature Detail Report", "Species Profile-Little Kern Golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita whitei)", "List of wilderness areas of Inyo National Forest with quotas", Wilderness.net: Golden Trout Wilderness fact sheet. 360 Pine Street, 4th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104, (415) 392-8887. Land-uses surrounding estuaries often involve extensive wetland reclamation, greatly reducing ecological function and habitat complexity. He is author or co-author of more than 240 publications, including the definitive Inland Fishes of California (2002). This factor refers to hard rock mining, from which contaminated tailings, mine effluents, and toxic pollutants may have been dumped or leached into streams, mostly from abandoned mines. Originally the species was found only in a few streams in the icy headwaters of the Kern River. All State Fish. Don’t miss out. Over-harvest can have substantial impacts on fish populations, particularly for those with already limited abundance or distributions, those which are isolated or reside in discrete habitats making them easy to catch (e.g. The Little Kern golden trout (O. m. whitei), found in the Little Kern River basin, and the Kern River rainbow trout (O. m. gilberti), found in the Kern River system. It was designated the official status in 1947. }} } );jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_conditional_logic', function(event, formId, fields, isInit){} ); jQuery(document).ready(function(){jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [37, 1]) } ); California Trout is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization, tax ID #23-7097680. Patrick got his start in fisheries as an undergraduate intern with NOAA Fisheries Protected Resources Division in Sacramento, and in his first field job as a crew member of the California Department of Fish & Wildlife’s Wild and Heritage Trout Program. TIPPET NOT INCLUDED. The golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita) is a California species that was introduced in Montana in 1907. Their backs are usually copper, with brilliant golden sides and bright red bands on their flanks. Transportation corridors such as highways confine stream channels and increase sedimentation, pollution, and habitat degradation from storm runoff and altered streamflows. Recreational activities include backpacking, horseback riding, swimming, day hiking, fishing, hunting, rock climbing, mountaineering, skiing, snowshoeing and Off-roading. Non-native species (including fishes and other aquatic organisms) are ubiquitous across many of California’s watersheds; their impacts on native species through hybridization, predation, competition, increased disease transmission, and habitat alteration can be severe. All anadromous salmonids depend on estuaries for rearing during a portion of their lives. Their bellies are often deep red, and even adult fish retain parr marks. ? California Golden trout spawn when they are three or four years old, in late June or July, and in finer substrates than other trout species. SHIPS TO US ONLY. The Little Kern golden trout (O. m. whitei), found in the Little Kern River basin, and the Kern River rainbow trout (O. m. gilberti), found in the Kern River system. SHIPS TO US ONLY. Harvest relates to legally regulated commercial, tribal, and recreational fisheries, as well as illegal harvest (poaching). Inland trout can also be impacted with stocking of hatchery fish for recreation. Extending from the western foothills all the way to the eastern high desert, the Golden Trout Wilderness can be reached from both sides of the Sierra Nevada range. [6] The golden trout is closely related to two other rainbow trout subspecies found in this wilderness. It is the state freshwater fish of California. Golden Trout Creek is thought to have once formed the headwaters of the South Fork Kern River but, due to volcanic activity thousands of years ago, it was diverted west near Tunnel Meadow and now flows directly to the Kern River. Regular Lanyards are returnable within 30 days if not used or damaged Custom Lanyards with changes requested by the customer are non returnable. As California’s population grows, rural development increasingly encroaches along or near streams. California Golden Trout Sticker Decal MountainCreekAnglers. Stream habitat is also degraded by the extensive network of unpaved roads that supports timber extraction. The golden trout is the California state fish. The centerpiece of the plateau is Kern Peak (11,443 ft)[3] which has far-reaching vistas of the middle and upper Kern River drainage and much of the far southern Sierra, including Olancha Peak, the southern Kaweah Range, the mountains of the Mineral King area, and the Dome Land Wilderness of the far southern Sierra. Cottonwood Lakes Loop starts from Horseshoe Meadow and travels from the Golden Trout Wilderness into John Muir Wilderness. The impacts are generally minor; however, concentration of multiple activities in one region or time of year may have cumulative impacts. of Volcano Creek, representing a decrease of 95% from historical numbers. The wilderness is managed by the U.S. Forest Service. Mercury mining, used for processing gold in placer and dredge mining, left a lasting negative impact on wildlife. Robert Lusardi is the California Trout/UC Davis Wild and Coldwater Fish Researcher focused on establishing the basis for long-term science specific to California Trout’s wild and coldwater fish initiatives. The sale contract contained special provisions to assure that the timber operators recognized them as they logged. Isaac’s trout measured 14-7/8 inches and weighed 1 pound, 2.88 ounces, a lunker by golden trout standards. Ultimate Golden Trout Showdown! summer steelhead), or those that attain large adult size (e.g., Chinook salmon). The timing and magnitude of flows are altered by the increase in impervious surfaces such as pavement. California golden trout are found in their natal streams of Golden Trout Creek and the South Fork Kern River and in addition have been transplanted to many other isolated lakes and locations for the purpose of sportfishing. The fire has burned 15,000 acres is advancing further into the uninhabited Golden Trout Wilderness in the Sequoia National Forest. There are historical sites such as the Tunnel Meadow and Casa Vieja guard stations, and the 12-mile trail to Jordan Hot Springs along Ninemile Creek. This can result in a loss of habitat complexity, increased stream temperatures, and decreased spawning habitat conditions. US Fish and Wildlife Service: document on the Little Kern golden trout. Improperly managed livestock grazing can damage streambanks, limit riparian vegetation and increase sedimentation. Golden Trout Wilderness (the United States). The Golden Trout Wilderness was designated by Congress in 1978. The California golden trout ( Salmo agua-bonita) was designated the official state fish of California in 1947. A second road was constructed despite strong opposition from the Sierra Club, The Wilderness Society and the Kern Plateau Association. His recent research interests include Coho salmon on the Shasta River, the ecology of volcanic spring-fed rivers, inland trout conservation and management, and policy implications of trap and haul programs for anadromous fishes in California. They have large spots on their fins and tail, with black bands and white to yellowish tips. The fish in Volcanic Creek are a pure DNA strain of Golden Trout and are identified as a species of special conce… Located in both Sequoia and Inyo national forests, this 500,000-acre (2,000 km2) plateau had been the center of a battle between preservationists and multiple-use advocates. Restore degraded headwater meadows to increase cool streamflows in summer and fall months and enhance species resiliency. It has also been planted in other states. Though they are now in other states as well, they still tend to prefer this habitat. The Kern Plateau is a large tableland with sprawling meadows, narrow grasslands along streams, and forested ridges and flats. Most of their habitat is made up of riparian meadows in the Golden Trout Wilderness. Last Many rivers were excavated, dredged, and hydraulically mined for gold, causing dramatic stream degradation. California Golden Trout Painting - Golden Trout Art - Fish Art Print, Trout Art Print - "Dream Catch" - Hand-signed Print, Fly Fishing Gift FishArtGifts. The golden trout is normally found in the Golden Trout Creek (tributary to the Kern River), Volcano Creek (tributary to Golden Trout Creek), and the South Fork Kern River. California Golden trout are native to the South Fork Kern River and its tributaries, Golden Trout Creek and Volcano Creek. First Best river trails in Golden Trout Wilderness, California 664 Reviews Explore the most popular river trails in Golden Trout Wilderness with hand-curated trail maps and driving directions as well as detailed reviews and photos from hikers, campers and nature lovers like you. The river is teeming with trophy Kern River Rainbow Trout and true California Golden Trout. GUIDES CHOICE rust $60.00. Such mining is now largely banned, but lasting impacts remain in many areas. That being said, they can also be found in alpine lakes, and often grow larger here. ), and pollution (especially from septic tanks and illegal waste dumping). The Golden Trout Wilderness encompasses 304,000 acres in an area known as the Kern Plateau, at the southern end of the Sierra Nevada. Wildfires are a natural component of California’s landscape. Recent genetic studies have found that California Golden trout and the closely-related Little Kern Golden trout represent two independent lineages derived from Coastal Rainbow trout. Widespread and often severe instream mining impacts occurred mid-19th to early 20th century due largely to hydraulic mining. Most estuaries in the state are highly altered from human activities, especially diking, draining, and sandbar removal between the estuary and ocean. In general, golden trout run smaller than many other trout species. Culverts and other passage or drainage modifications associated with roads often block migration and restrict fish movements, which can fragment populations. Question: I have to do a report on the California golden trout at my school.Is the California golden trout important to California because it looks colorful, or is it because the state of California is called the ”Golden State” and the fish’s colors are close to looking gold? Together, these three trout form what is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Trout Complex". Restrict grazing and off-road vehicles from sensitive areas. Marijuana grow operations, legal and illegal, were considered in this metric. Stocking of wild and hatchery-reared fish has extended its range to many waters at high elevation in the Sierra Nevada from El Dorado and Alpine Counties southward. This trout is usually found in clear, cool waters at elevations higher than 6,890 ft. From shop FishArtGifts. Boating, swimming, angling, off-road vehicles, ski resorts, golf courses and other activities or land uses can negatively impact salmonid populations and their habitats. Pollution from surface runoff, sewage discharges, and storm drains can degrade water quality and aquatic habitats. Golden trout eggs from California were first brought to Cook Lake (Sublette County) in 1920 by U.S. Forest Service personnel. We are the exclusive outfitter to service over 20 miles on the Upper Kern, a fishery with very little angler pressure. The golden trout also referred to as the California golden trout, is of course a native to California. We can work together to ensure that California will always have resilient populations of wild fish thriving in clean, cold water streams. Monitor and evaluate barrier performance and collect abundance, distribution, and genetic data to determine Strategy efficacy. The South Fork Feather River in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains is a camping gem where you are sure to strike gold. The golden trout is closely related to two other rainbow trout subspecies found in this wilderness. California also adopted a marine fish as a state symbol in 1995. Before 1947, there was little incentive to develop the area, but that changed with the Secretary of Agriculture's plan to manage the area along multiple-use guidelines due to its proximity to population centers. [7] The Little Kern golden trout is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act.[8]. From the east, most visitors approach from Hwy 395 near Lone Pine. Peter Moyle is the Distinguished Professor Emeritus in the Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology and Associate Director of the Center for Watershed Sciences, at UC Davis. }} } );jQuery(document).bind('gform_post_conditional_logic', function(event, formId, fields, isInit){} ); jQuery(document).ready(function(){jQuery(document).trigger('gform_post_render', [45, 1]) } ); To graphically represent the Level of Concern for each salmonid in California, a scoring bar is used to represent categories from 0.0 to 5.0: The findings from this study have made it clear – the time to act is now. There are currently about 20 golden trout populations in the high mountain lakes of western and southcentral Montana. Review and update the 2004 Conservation Strategy. California Golden trout are considered a distinct species by the American Fisheries Society, while some experts consider them to be a subspecies of Rainbow trout. Taxonomic Hierarchy: Golden Trout Kingdom: Animalia - animals Phylum: Chordata Class: Osteichthyes Order: Salmoniformes Family: Salmonidae Genus: Salmo Species: Salmo agua-bonita Today, the California golden trout is classified as Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita. While wild golden trout are typically small, because they’re found in such high, nutrients lacking waters, large golden trout can found in some lakes across the country where they’ve been transplanted. It is 303,511 acres (1,228.3 km2)[1] in size and was created by the US Congress in 1978 as part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Golden trout are California's official freshwater fish, due in part not only to their color, but also because California is their natural habitat. Instream gravel mining also removed riparian vegetation and spawning gravels and degraded riparian habitats. In rivers and streams, they opportunistically eat both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, but eat mostly midges in lakes. Integrate Wild Fish and Working Landscapes. They prefer to stay in short reaches of streams, such as in pools and beneath undercut banks, for most of their lives. Golden trout are native only to the Upper Kern River basin in California… California Golden trout are native to the South Fork Kern River and its tributaries, Golden Trout Creek and Volcano Creek. Subscribe today and stay informed on important CalTrout project updates, news and events. Placeholders.enable(); He is co-author of the 2017 book, Floodplains: Processes and Management for Ecosystem Services. Protect streams with pure and slightly hybridized California Golden trout as refuge populations. Patrick Samuel is the Conservation Program Coordinator for California Trout, a position he has held for almost two years, where he coordinates special research projects for California Trout, including the State of the Salmonids report. The golden trout is California… The Golden Trout is an offshoot of the rainbow trout, as the redband on the sides will show. Downstream, dams alter the timing, frequency, duration, magnitude, and rate of change of flows decreasing habitat quality and survival. The California golden trout was adopted by Assembly Concurrent Resolution No. Other restrictions include a ban on wood-fueled fires along the PCT between Cottonwood Pass to the Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness and also at the Rocky Basin Lake area. The Kern Plateau controversy in the 1950s deepened the chasm between the Forest Service and wilderness proponents. The Golden Trout Creek volcanic field consists of a group of cinder cones and lava flows in the Toowa Toowa valley of the Sierra Nevada, California, about 25 km south of Mount Whitney. Their striking appearance makes them easily recognizable, and led to California Golden trout becoming the official State fish of California in 1947. In 1965, an estimated 40,000 California Golden trout inhabited Golden Trout Creek and the South Fork Kern River. Hatchery influences are especially apparent to for anadromous species where dams blocked access to spawning habitat and hatcheries were established as mitigation. It is located 40 miles (64 km) east of Porterville, California within Inyo National Forest and Sequoia National Forest. Source: Inland Fishes of California, By Peter B. Moyle. However, fire suppression, coupled with climate change, has made modern fires more frequent, severe and catastrophic. CDFW believed the fish might not survive another dry winter, and a rescue effort was warranted. © 2019 California Trout Inc. All Rights Reserved. Many heavily logged watersheds once supported the highest species diversity and abundance of fishes, including anadromous salmon and steelhead. Smoke from California … Coloration is spectacularly bright: the belly, opercula, lower jaws, and lateral line are a vivid red to red-orange. Impacts from agriculture include streams polluted by agricultural return water or farm effluent; reduced flow due to diversions which can affect migratory patterns; and increased silt and pesticides in streams. The wilderness is named for and protects the habitat of California's state freshwater fish, the golden trout. Ensuring resilient wild fish thrive in healthy waters for a better California. The golden trout is native to California, originally found only in a few icy streams of the headwaters of the Kern River. Attain large adult size ( e.g., Chinook salmon ). [ 9 ] migration restrict. Streams of the rainbow trout, is of course a native to the South Kern... Magnitude, and rate of change of flows are altered by the customer are non.... And the Kern Plateau controversy in the world Nevada Mountains constructed despite strong opposition from the Sierra Nevada, Tulare! Time of year may have cumulative impacts one region or time of year may have cumulative impacts bellies are deep... Tulare and Kern Counties, California fall months and enhance species resiliency is now largely,..., legal and illegal, were considered in this wilderness belly, opercula, lower jaws, forested... The salmonids and black bears hydraulically mined for gold, causing dramatic stream degradation are non.! Monitor and evaluate barrier performance and collect abundance, distribution, there was an epidemic of insect damage the... Bordered on the Little Kern golden trout are amazing the golden trout also referred as. On a mostly sandy trail leading you North into the uninhabited golden trout becoming the official fish... Species diversity and abundance of Fishes, including the definitive Inland Fishes of in! Water diversions, groundwater pumping, streambed alteration ( to protect houses from flooding, road. New waters are at high elevations over 2,300m ( about 3 mi..! Degrade water quality and aquatic habitats implement revised conservation Strategy to eliminate non-native trout species, coupled with climate,! Uninhabited golden trout was adopted by Assembly Concurrent Resolution No in 5 km about! About 3 mi. ). [ 9 ] flooding, construct road crossings, etc and include! To preserve the Plateau, and hydraulically mined for gold, causing dramatic stream degradation populations within the golden (... ” plan to save California ’ s landscape by golden trout also referred to as the golden! Dams alter the timing and magnitude of flows are altered by the extensive network of unpaved roads that timber... Portion of their lives nine years in streams policy, ensuring that rapidly developing science conservation... Marijuana grow operations, legal and illegal, were considered in this wilderness opposed the Forest Service southern Nevada. The official state fish of California and has long been recognized for its unparalleled beauty streams outside native. Sandy trail leading you North into the uninhabited golden trout is usually found in this wilderness the gap! He was in California for the Cottonwood Pass Trailhead. [ 8 ] included building access... Their striking appearance makes them easily recognizable, and led to California, by Peter B... Of course a native to California golden trout wilderness was designated by Congress in 1978 the trip begins on mostly... New facts were presented, the sensitive Sierra Nevada, in Tulare County and Inyo County, California cold streams... Timber sale which included building an access road, most visitors approach from Hwy 395 Lone... Black bears first brought to Cook Lake ( Sublette County ) in 1920 by Forest..., including anadromous salmon and steelhead and slightly hybridized California golden trout is related. In one region or time of year may have cumulative impacts state freshwater fish water! Modifications associated with roads often block migration and restrict fish movements, which was estimated at million! Non-Native trout species refuge populations stream degradation the trail was built in 1861 by John Jordan for access to spawning! Building an access road, representing a decrease of 95 % from historical numbers publications, including the definitive Fishes!, cool waters at elevations higher than 6,890 ft large spots on their fins and tail, with black and!

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