Despite receiving the most votes, CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year. Despite an attempt at a general stoppage in Madrid, other strikes did not endure. There was a lot of political turmoil and disagreement during this time, which is evidenced by the many prominent parties of the 2nd Republic and also by the bienniums of social/political change. "Revisando el revisionismo. Learn the basics with our essay writing guide. Die Zweite Spanische Republik (spanisch Segunda República Española [seˌɣunda reˈpuβlika espaˌɲola]) bezeichnet in Spanien die Epoche von 1931 bis 1936 bzw. of a sufficient economy to sustain the war of attrition or provide efficient equipment for the army; he once again was despised by the population and blamed for the numerous defeats the army endured and a growing hatred grew larger and larger against him and a cry for change. [12] On 12 July 1936 a group of Guardia de Asalto and other leftist militiamen led by Civil Guard Fernando Condés, after getting the approval of the minister of interior to illegally arrest a list of members or the parliament, went to right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo's house in the early hours of 13 July and shot him dead in a police truck. 1939, in der eine neue demokratische Staatsform (Republik) existierte und die von scharfen politischen sowie ökonomischen Konflikten des Landes gekennzeichnet war. Territories and colonies of the Spanish Republic: Assassinations of political leaders and beginning of the war, Payne, Stanley G. The collapse of the Spanish republic, 1933–1936: Origins of the civil war. GCSE resources with teacher and student feedback, AS and A Level resources with teacher and student feedback, International Baccalaureate resources with teacher and student feedback, University resources with teacher and student feedback. The 1931 Constitution was formally effective from 1931 until 1939. Spain, as a largely agrarian economy was rife with endemic poverty hindering growth and industrialization. The constitution established legal procedures for the nationalisation of public services and land, banks, and railways. (15 mins) Debate each of these statements as a class. He took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and was in power 1978, when the … Moreover the Second Republic gave the retired officers full-pay, so by the end it had little money left for social reforms. When this failed and Barcelona fell to the rebels in early 1939, it was clear the war was over. The Himno de Riego was established as the national anthem, and the Tricolor, with three horizontal red-yellow-purple fields, became the new flag of Spain. The failure of a Republican military rising at Jaca (December 12, 1930) saved them from having to establish a republic by force. Republicanism in Spain is a political position and movement that holds that Spain should be a Republic. The moderate centre parties virtually disappeared; between the elections, Lerroux's group fell from the 104 representatives it had in 1934 to just 9. The initial government would be an all-military "Directory", which would create a "strong and disciplined state." The restoration of the royal Bourbons was rejected by large sectors of the populace who vehemently opposed the King. The socio-economic divide between the rich and the poor continued to expand and the poor?s hunger for land continued. As a result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the war that followed; the number of casualties is actually disputed as some have suggested as many as a million people died. Spanish Second Republic Revisited: From Democratic Hopes to Civil War (1931-1936) (Studies in Spanish History) | Tardío, Manuel Álvarez, Reguillo, Fernando Del Rey | ISBN: 9781845195922 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. The second republic, proclaimed after the fall of the monarchy in 1931, was at first dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, among them Niceto Alcalá Zamora, Francisco Largo Caballero, and Manuel Azaña. Second Republic, (1848–52) French republic established after the Revolution of 1848 toppled the July monarchy of King Louis-Philippe. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Join over 1.2 million students every month, Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. General Sanjurjo would be the head of this new regime, due to being widely liked and respected within the military, though his position would be a largely symbolic due to his lack of political talent. Spanish Second Republic Revisited: From Democratic Hopes to the Civil War (1931-1936) (Sussex Studies in Spanish History) | Alvarez Tardio, Manuel, Rey Reguillo, Fernando del | ISBN: 9781845194598 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Violence would be required to destroy opposition to the coup, though it seems Mola did not envision the mass atrocities and repression that would ultimately manifest during the civil war. [3] After a year of intense pressure, CEDA, the largest party in the congress, was finally successful in forcing the acceptance of three ministries. There were numerous mistakes - whether it be the Asturia's uprising (the government's oppressive methods) or the Agrarian Reform Law; by the 1930s all these tension caused by the government had built up, and once the murder in 193 was done, everything escalated. In the thirty-six hours following the election, sixteen people were killed (mostly by police officers attempting to maintain order or intervene in violent clashes) and thirty-nine were seriously injured, while fifty churches and seventy conservative political centres were attacked or set ablaze. The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. The Second Republic in Spain lasted from 1931 to 1939. With Spanish territory increasingly falling into Nationalist hands, the Republic's tenuous existence was further threatened by economic bankruptcy and sheer physical starvation. The third government was led by socialist Juan Negrín, who led the Republic until the military coup of Segismundo Casado, which ended republican resistance and ultimately led to the victory of the nationalists, who established a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco, known as Francoist Spain. © 2003 - 2015 Marked by Teachers. The Republicans managed to hold out in Madrid, despite a Nationalist assault in November 1936, and frustrated subsequent offensives against the capital at Jarama and Guadalajara in 1937. Spain’s First Democracy The Second Republic, 1931–1936 Stanley G. Payne “[Stanley Payne is] America’s most prolific historian of Spain.” —Paul Preston, New York Times Book Review The significance of Spain’s Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. Period: Jan 1, 1931 to Dec 31, 1932. Neutral Trade The rapid deterioration of Spain?s finances after 1793 and the subsequent disruption of normal trading patterns profoundly affected Spain?s commercial and political relations with its colonies. Coup General Miguel Primo de Rivera overthrew the government and established a dictatorship to prevent the Monarchy from falling. "Mobilization and political violence following the Spanish general elections of 1936". In anticlericalism: Spain …of 1931 that established the Second Republic brought to power an anticlerical government. The Republican Constitution also changed the country's national symbols. The Left Republic of 1931-3 Apr 1, 1931. The many mistakes that the Republic had played the role in polarizing Spain. Nevertheless, five years later the country plunged itself into a gory civil war. The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939. The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. The reason for this great failure takes its root in many different aspects of the Spanish history. [8], The government led by the Radical Republican Party went through a series of crises in 1935. In the summer of 1936, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, it became largely irrelevant after the authority of the Republic was superseded in many places by revolutionary socialists and anarchists on one side, and fascists on the other. The murder of a parliamentary leader by state police was unprecedented, and the belief that the state had ceased to be neutral and effective in its duties encouraged important sectors of the right to join the rebellion. Franco. Alfonso XIII of Spain assumed power in 1902. This operation earned López Ochoa the nickname "Butcher of Asturias". • Nevertheless, five years later the country plunged itself into a gory civil war. Landowners were expropriated. [52] However, the kidnapping and murder of Sotelo transformed the "limping conspiracy" into a revolt that could trigger a civil war. [28], The majority vote in the 1933 elections was won by the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). The constitution provided generally accorded civil liberties and representation.[25]. The Second Republic was formed on April 14, 1931 after local elections returned anti-monarchist representatives in most cities and large towns. The Left were both physically and handicapped due to unpopular reform which meant it was more difficult for it to uphold democracy during the civil war. The Constitution guaranteed a wide range of civil liberties, but it opposed key beliefs of the conservative right, which was very rooted in rural areas, and desires of the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church, which was stripped of schools and public subsidies. In the eyes of many people this was not equality, as the state strived to achieve and failed to do. In face of CEDA's electoral victory, President Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Gil Robles, to form a government, fearing CEDA's monarchist sympathies. But the built-up of strain and pressure played the main part in covering up the Republic's accomplishments and made its failure inevitable. Asturias 1934. The UGT, along with the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), were the main forces behind the aforementioned social revolution. Due to Spain's backwardness and the fact that the nation was poor, many people sought to go to extremist parties in search of a solution. According to all later investigations, the perpetrator of the murder was a socialist gunman, Luis Cuenca, who was known as the bodyguard of PSOE leader Indalecio Prieto. The Second Spanish Republic's economy was mostly agrarian, and many historians call Spain during this time a "backward nation". donquijote. The Pact of San Sebastián was the key to the transition from monarchy to republic. [9] Manuel Azaña Díaz was called upon to form a government before the electoral process had come to an end; he would shortly replace Zamora as president, taking advantage of a constitutional loophole. But without the money to carry out its promises, the Republic lost yet more support, this time from the working class. In 1930, Primo de Rivera was forced to resign. Instead, they initiated a slow and determined war of attrition against the Republican government in Madrid. The coup failed due to the popular resistance and the support of some police forces loyal to the Republic. The army was reduced. A "Catalan State" was proclaimed by Catalan nationalist leader Lluis Companys, but it lasted just ten hours. Learn more. On 12 July 1936, Lieutenant José Castillo, an important member of the anti-fascist military organisation Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista (UMRA), was shot by Falangist gunmen. [24], The legislative branch was changed to a single chamber called the Congress of Deputies. The issue was that the Left Republicans identified the Republic not with democracy or constitutional law but with a specific set of left-wing policies and politicians. The suspension of the land reforms that had been attempted by the previous government, and the failure of the Asturias miners' uprising, led to a more radical turn by the parties of the left, especially in the PSOE (Socialist Party), where the moderate Indalecio Prieto lost ground to Francisco Largo Caballero, who advocated a socialist revolution. [40][11][41] Valladares resigned, even before a new government could be formed. Republicans of all tendencies were committed to the Pact of San Sebastian in overthrowing the monarchy and establishing a republic. His body was dropped at the entrance of one of the city's cemeteries. Fifty eight religious buildings including churches, convents and part of the university at Oviedo were burned and destroyed. • In Barcelona, Companys, from his post of president of the Generalitat, led an uprising with clear secession undertones. Second Republic. To say that it completely failed is probably unjust, given the conditions and some of its successes at the time. ...read more. [42], The right reacted as if radical communists had taken control, despite the new cabinet's moderate composition; they were shocked by the revolutionary masses taking to the streets and the release of prisoners. In History. [55] Within hours of learning of the murder and the reaction, Franco, that until then had not been involved in the conspiracies, changed his mind on rebellion and dispatched a message to Mola to display his firm commitment.[56]. [29] Miners in Asturias occupied the capital, Oviedo, killing officials and clergymen. Analyse the reasons for the weaknesses and collapse of democracy between 1918 and 1939 ... Crisis and Collapse in Spain between 1793 and 1808, Why did Tsarism fail to survive the first world war. The Second Republic did try its best at times in measures such as the labour arbitration scheme and the Catalan Statute. The liberal republicans’ hopes of establishing an enduring democratic regime were soon This way the republican government of Manuel Azaña initiated numerous reforms to what in their view would "modernize" the country.[2]. The Spanish Republic and commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the previous and short-lived First Spanish Republic (1873–1874), was the democratic republican administration that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. American historian Stanley G. Payne thinks that the process was a major electoral fraud, with widespread violation of the laws and the constitution. Key Terms Francisco Franco A Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death. Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. Another reason for the downfall of the Left Republic (1031~33) was its extreme anticlerical measures. Their chance came in 1931 when King Alfonso XIII was forced into exile and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and a Constitutional Republic was formally established. Alcalá Zamora’s professed goal was to “center the Republic,” stabilizing the new regime while avoiding extremes, but he failed altogether in this project. Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. All Rights Reserved. [50] Although the nationalist generals were already planning an uprising, the event was a catalyst and a public justification for a coup. Stanley Payne’s study argues that the failure of the Republic was not inevitable but depended on the policy choices of its president and the key party leaders. Alfonso XIII of Spain assumed power in 1902. The inclusion of three CEDA ministers in the government that took office on 1 October 1934 led to a country wide revolt. • The birth of the Second Republic was the key moment in modern Spanish history. At the same time, the involvement of the Centrist government party in the Straperlo scandal deeply weakened it, further polarising political differences between right and left. Catholic churches and establishments in cities like Madrid and Sevilla were set ablaze on 11 May. For example, they were recruited into anti profiteering objectivities during the Civil War because of their "tender hearts and sharp eyes." The second government was led by socialist Francisco Largo Caballero of the trade union General Union of Workers (UGT). He did, however, ask prime minister Manuel Portela Valladares to declare a state of war before the revolutionary masses rushed into the streets. Their chance came in 1931 when King Alfonso XIII was forced into exile and the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Catalonia (1932), the Basque Country (1936) and Galicia (although the Galician Statute of Autonomy couldn't come into effect due to the war) exercised this right, with Aragon, Andalusia and Valencia, engaged in negotiations with the government before the outbreak of the Civil War. Don't have an account yet? HISTORIANS HAVE RECOGNIZED THAT the advent of the Second Republic in Spain in 1931 was a unique event, the only major new step toward democracy in Europe during a decade of economic and political crisis. Yale University Press, 2008, pp.84–85. See what the reforms were and how the military reacted. ...read more. [51] Stanley Payne claims that before these events, the idea of rebellion by army officers against the government had weakened; Mola had estimated that only 12% of officers reliably supported the coup and at one point considered fleeing the country for fear he was already compromised, and had to be convinced to remain by his co-conspirators. It was used as a testing ground for the German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion. Created by teachers, our study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know. Alvarez Tardio, Manuel. Hachette UK, 2012. harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCasanova2010 (, Mariano Ospina Peña, La II República Española, caballerosandantes.net/videoteca.php?action=verdet&vid=89, Dilectissima Nobis, 2 (On Oppression Of The Church Of Spain), Spain 1833–2002, p.133, Mary Vincent, Oxford, 2007, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCasanova2010 (, Madariaga - Spain (1964) p.416 as cited in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFVilla_GarcíaÁlvarez_Tardío2017 (. Once the constituent assembly had fulfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, it should have arranged for regular parliamentary elections and adjourned. [2] Catholic churches in major cities were again subject to arson in 1932, and a revolutionary strike action was seen in Málaga the same year. Any deviation, even if democratic, was seen as treasonous.[5]. [64] Search for your essay title... the causes and consequences of the spanish civil war, Analyse the causes of the Spanish Civil War. Those who supported the Right, which were mainly Army officers, believed that this was the dismemberment of Spain. Its controversial articles 26 and 27 imposed stringent controls on Church property and barred religious orders from the ranks of educators. Bloody purges followed in each piece of captured "Nationalist" territory in order to consolidate Franco's future regime. Almost immediately after the results were known, a group of monarchists asked Robles to lead a coup but he refused. Sotelo was arrested and later shot dead in a police truck. 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