Thermocouples present a re-sistance that depends on the temperature. Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD), as the name implies, is a sensor used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance with temperature. Prerequisite. t = 100°C & t0 = 0°C α = temperature coefficient of resistance (°C‾1) Potentiometer R10 will simulate the behavior of the RTD. Summer Sprint Integration Workshop at IIT Guwahati, A new set of 35 Virtual Labs on Portable Media. Calibration of thermocouple for temperature measurement. A Resistance Temperature Detector (also known as a Resistance Thermometer or RTD) is an electronic device used to determine the temperature by measuring the resistance of an electrical wire. I. Measurement of temperature by thermocouple 9. Measurement of temperature by RTD. Introduction. For a wide range of materials and conditions, the electrical resistance does not depend on the amount of current through or the potential difference (voltage) across the object. EXPERIMENT NO. 3.   Knowledge of various methods of temperature measurement. The Callendar Van Dusen Equation is used in the standard IEC 751 which is the most popular standard used for RTD. Setting t0 to 0°C and rearranging to the standard linear y = m*x+b form, it is clear that resistance vs. temperature is linear with a slope equal to,                                     R / R0 = α*t + 1                                                              Â. Theoretically, any metal can be used to measure temperature. The resistance is proportional to length and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area and is given by the relationship,           R = ρl/A                                           Â.  Where 'R' is resistance of the metal, 'ρ' is the resistivity of the metal, 'l' is the length of the metal and 'A' is the area of cross section of the metal. All Chemical Engineering undergraduate students are required to take a laboratory course in each semester from 3rd to 7th semester. The Chemical Engineering laboratory, with an area of 165 sq. Lab Manual RTD PT-100 Platinum Resistance Temperature Detector - 100 Ohm at 0 oC Prepared by Tam Hai-Dang Nguyen ElectroMechanical Energy Laboratory April 2013 . In some cases baking the RTD assembly will increase the insulation resistance and recover the RTD. 03 2. [���w2��]Pt,(L�%��j�7�%�~��@� �|f�OI &D��~ III/IV I-SEM EIE ... Study and calibration of RTD 11. Transducers and Instrumentation Lab Page 19 Observations: Speed (RPM) Voltage 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 21. Knowledge of active and passive transducers. Within a limited temperature range, its resistance increases linearly with temperature:                                     Rt = R0[1+ α (t-t0)]                                                          Â, Where: Instrumentation Lab. �r�0]rAY��Mv��:j��$��Jc7�{h��h��\t�Ԃ���w���d��YY����hl>�Q�ٴ! 2 0 obj Study of different types of Proximity switches. 13 - 17 4. x��W�o�6~7���O�T�4����8��s� E��,M�M�e���ݑ�#ڢ$` DS��ǻ���N8a�#JQ&H�8� y�N`��S�� ����MVn����v�j��I�ϊl��UVmK��U��3C�Y>SY�a��_��v��A�陸�C��-�����HK��!-Gy��F�oMA Interchangeability: Interchangeability is the measure of change in base tolerance and temperature coefficient from sensor to sensor. In addition, some experiments will undergo modification and updating. – 01: – Study of Universal Testing Machine (U.T.M.) '�U�����c�Ae�``C/D��&�K�d�ۧ�e�0=x�YP����U.iIIUUhʼ��TIs �d. • Process fluid transients In RTD, the  output resistance changes with temperature. Transducers and Instrumentation Lab Page 20 Experiment No. To Study the various component parts of the Universal Testing Machine (U.T.M.) Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled … An RTD (resistance temperature detector) is a temperature sensor that operates on the measurement principle that a materials electrical resistance changes with temperature. Explore the working principle of Photoelectric Speed Transducer b. The causes can be an inadequate seal, high humidity environment, or a failed seal. 2. Meaning of terms like process lag, positive and negative temperature coefficient, negative temperature, virtual temperature, … RTDs are manufactured from metals whose resistance increases with temperature. The response of RTD for a step change in the input is plotted. Calibration of thermistor for temperature measurement. R0 = Resistance at 0°C Where: t = temperature. Calibration of Pressure Gauges 33 - 37 8. Accuracy:It is the comparison of measurement with standard results.That is how good the data is when compared with a recognized standard. Lab manual experiment names. 6. The causes can be an inadequate seal, high humidity environment, or a failed seal. Click here to see apparatus. Step by step Procedure: 1. Self heating: The very small cross-sectional areas in the sensing elements will tend to heat when electrical current is applied. Plot the graphs for Temperature change inthe thermometer V/s Change in the millivolt/Resistance TABULAR COLUMN-1 EXPERIMENT-2 THERMOMETER REARING 'C (Actual Temperature) RTD "c SL. Study of resistance temperature detector for temperature measurement. The resolution of the RTD itself is 0.292 to 0.39Ω/ o C. The RTD has been shielded by stainless steel so that it can be immersed in the liquid or gas to sense the heat. Knowledge of various methods of temperature measurement. LAB REPORT ON CSTR IN SERIES (L2) 5 f4.0 THEORY The Residence – Time Distribution (RTD) inside the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (BP107) shows the characteristic of the mixing of reactants that occurs inside the reactor. In this experiment, Platinum RTD is used for calculating the time constant values. Name of the Experiment Page No. Never work in the laboratory without the supervision of a teacher. If we want to measure temperature with high accuracy, an RTD is the ideal solution, as it has … t = temperature (°C) Note: Minimum 10 experiments should be performed from the following 1. Knowledge of various methods of temperature measurement. Since it is an average measurement, it does not depend on the number of particles in an object. The RTD element is made from a pure metals as mentioned below. Factors that influence the sensor response: B = -5.775*10-7°C‾2 A,B,C are constants and C = 0 for t > 0°C. 8. %���� 4 0 obj Platinum RTDs are defined by standards such as DIN 43760 (BS1904), IEC 751-1983, and JIS C1604. The material property to have predictable change in resistance as the temperature changes,                                     R,                                     R / R, Theoretically, any metal can be used to measure temperature. m., includes experimental set-up on Fluid mechanics, Unit Operations, Mass Transfer, Heat Transfer, Reaction Engineering, Thermodynamics, and Process Dynamics. In some cases baking the RTD assembly will increase the insulation resistance and recover the RTD. One of the most linear, stable, and reproducible temperature sensors is the RTD, Resistance Temperature Detector. The resistive property defines length and cross sectional area required to fabricate an RTD of a given value.  Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) 17 ± 21 5. In that sense it does not depend on the size of it. APPARATUS REQUIRED:-Multimeter Demonstrator NV7106 and Frequency Counter Trainer NV7105 Kits THEORY:- Multimeter Multimeter Demonstrator NV7106 is a versatile training system used in the Electronic Instrumentation laboratories. The equation for RTD given in IEC 751 is:                                  Rt =R0 [1+ At+ Bt2 +C(t-100)t3 ]                                           Â. Turn the Heater OFF by pressing OFF the Heater Switch on the screen. Study of resistance temperature detector (RTD… This would entail carrying out the actual lab experiment remotely. 4. DEHRADUN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY MANUAL PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION SHEET EXPERIMENT TITLE : To study and calibrate temp using resistance temperature detector (RTD) EXPERIMENT NO. The RTD is essentially a temperature dependent resistor with a positive temperature coefficient. Immediately report any spills, accidents, or injuries to Lab in-charge. LABORATORY MANUAL TRANSDUCERS LAB (EE 385) for B.E. α = Constant ( 0.00385Ω/Ω/°C ) View Lab 3 manual.pdf from CHBE 4412 at Georgia Institute Of Technology. Its desirable characteristics include chemical stability, availability in a pure form, and electrical properties that are highly reproducible. • Thermal lag  when combined with the thermowell Commonly used RTD Materials: Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD), as the name implies, is a sensor used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance with temperature. 10. For high-performance programmable unit consider the PRS-330 For an ultra precision manual unit consider the RTD Series For low cost solid performance consider the OS-270 or RS-RTD. Importance of temperature measurement. IET manufactures a variety of RTD simulators to calibrate RTD's in the field, the laboratory or automated stations. • Influences from wall or vessel 5.   Knowledge of active and passive transducers. : ISSUE DATE : REV. endobj • Tungsten (rare) Start taking readings by pressing [Read] button on different temperature values. EXPERIMENT NO.2 FORCE - MEASUREMENT : It is the largest cause of errors and failure of RTD. Various units of temperature measurement and conversion of one unit to another. Lab Manual Chemical Engineering Department, IT, NU CH503 –Instrumentation and Process Control 2015-16 Index Sr. No. • Environmental factors They have been used for many years to measure temperature in laboratory and industrial processes, and have developed a reputation for accuracy, repeatability, and stability. 2. t( °C) W(t) dt/dW(t) 300 2.1429223 275.2199 301 2.1465557 275.3075 302 2.1501880 275.3951 303 2.1538192 275.4827 350 2.3231801 279.6655 351 2.3267558 279.7559 REV. RTD is a positive temperature coefficient device. 1 0 obj • Copper For platinum, α = 0.00385 Ω/Ω/°C  View Lab#8_Calibration of RTD Temperature Transmitter (L133).pdf from ELEC 10066 at Mohawk College. : Electrical Engineering LABORATORY : Control System EA5220 SEMESTER : V 7.                                       α = (R100 - R0) /( R0 *(t-t0))                                              Â. Measurement lab: EXP#2 The Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) CHARACTERISTIC 4 8. Well designed, high quality sensor will have less drift while high vibration, mechanical wear and tear and thermal shock will degrade the stability. Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core. Rt = Resistance at temperature, t°C  Factors that influence the sensor response: • Thermal lag  when combined with the thermowell, • Fluid boundary or film on sensing surface. • Each variable or parameter of an equation is … Jordan University of Science and Technology Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Instrumentation and Dynamic Systems Lab Experiment #8: Thermocouples Introduction: 2. R = resistance. NO. The metal selected should have a high melting point and an ability to withstand the effects of corrosion. %PDF-1.5 Please be patient as the manual and our laboratory evolve. Laboratory 5 First Order Systems and Temperature Measurements ME 365 6 Appendix A: Temperature Measurement Devices We will be studying two types of temperature measuring devices in this laboratory, the T-type thermocouple and the platinum resistance temperature detector (RTD). Logic Design Laboratory Manual 11 _____ EXPERIMENT: 4 PARALLEL ADDER AND SUBTRACTOR AIM: To design and set up the following circuit using IC 7483. i) A 4-bit binary parallel adder. The basic unit of temperature (T) in the International System of Units (SI) is the Kelvin (K). Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core. For example, the temperature of a small cup of boiling water is the same as the temperature of a large pot of boiling water. This wire is referred to as a temperature sensor. The RTD simulator effectively replaces an RTD to test, analyze, and calibrate RTD measuring systems. Calibration of hot wire anemometer for temperature measurement. Where, An RTD consists of a wire coil or deposited film of pure metal. 3.                                                   R = V/I,                                          Â. is the length of the metal and 'A' is the area of cross section of the metal. To realize a subtractor using adder IC 7483 Georgia Institute of Technology School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering ChBE 4412 Process Control Laboratory Experiment Insulation resistance: It is the largest cause of errors and failure of RTD. • Flow velocity of the process fluid NO 60.7 1 57.5 96.5 2 87.5 1556 3 153.2 t ID# Lab Number S Questions: 1. 4. 7 Title: Analysis of Photoelectric Speed transducer Objectives: a. 9. Select the RTD as bare element (make it on). Before performing the practical on RTD one must be well versed with: 1. 6. The accuracy of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to its actual (true) value. Back to the top Experimental Procedure LEARNING OBJECTIVE: To learn about IC 7483 and its internal structure. The RTD Series Precision RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) Simulator provides a very broad-range of absolute resistance values that replace RTD’s,thermocouples. Interpolation from an RTD calibration (resistance ratio (W) table). From … The RTD used here is a PT100 platinum RTD. Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD): The RTD will be immersed in the constant temperature bath for the duration of the experiment. 1. The resistive property of the metal is called its resistivity. EXPERIMENT NO. MAE 334_09 Lab 1 Page 1 of 15 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering MAE 334 - Introduction to Instrumentation and Computers Laboratory 1 Static and Dynamic Calibration of Thermocouples Objectives This introductory experiment will give you a first experience in our Instrumentation and Systems Lab. With this type of calibration the UUT resistance is compared to defined values at specific temperatures. Hot glassware What is the principle of RTD? δ & β are Linearization coefficients, where β = 0 for t > 0°C Equation 9. T. Platinum is  selected for most of the applications. Where, That means the resistance R is constants for the given temperature and material. Rt = resistance at temperature 't' Experiment #8 Report: Thermocouples 1. The temperature indicated by the RTD will serve as the reference temperature (i.e., actual temperature of the bath). a,b,c,d,e = calibration coefficients. The metal selected should have a high melting point and an ability to withstand the effects of corrosion. 3. endobj PRT calibrations involving tolerance testing are reserved for low accuracy applications. The material property to have predictable change in resistance as the temperature changes, is used to determine temperature. Instrumentation and Control Lab-Manual, ELEC10066 Experiment #8, Lab … Remotely triggering an experiment in an actual lab and providing the student the result of the experiment through the computer interface. Tolerance testing method. stream What is an RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector)? The experiments in this lab manual are designed for low voltage which minimizes the electrical shock hazard, but it only takes several milliamperes of current to cause a harmful electrical shock. Most RTDs are specified to be operated with a current of 1 milliampere or less. Response time: Response time is time the sensor takes to react to temperature changes in a process. 7. The most popular RTD is the Pt100. The criterions for selecting a material for an RTD: 1. The element is usually quite fragile, so it is often placed inside a sheathed probe to protect it. 1 Meaning of terms like process lag, positive and negative temperature coefficient, negative temperature, virtual temperature, etc. A = 3.9083*10-3°C‾1 . • Immersion length Before performing the practical on RTD one must be well versed with: 1.   Importance of temperature measurement. Measurement of Pressure using Bellows, Bourdon gauge, Diaphragm. : ISSUE NO. A resistance-temperature detector (RTD) is a temperature sensing device whose resistance increases with temperature. Stability: It is the measurement of drift over time. RTD Materials                                       α = (R,                                  R. Linear relationship of resistance and temperature. Study of dynamic characteristics (speed of response) of instrument (thermometer). Safety must always be first. #��]������ The setup consists of a RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) and its signal conditioning circuit. R0 = resistance at a reference temperature ( Generally 0 degree C) Its value increases when the temperature increases and vice versa. • Nickel According to the specifications of the laboratory, at a 25º C temperature the RTD has a resistance of 150 Ω. & test procedures of various practical’s to be performed. 2.   Various units of temperature measurement and conversion of one unit to another. 26 ± 32 7. • Fluid boundary or film on sensing surface Various units of temperature measurement and conversion of one unit to another. The values of A,B and C for α = 0.00385 are Index S.No. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Even if the large pot is much bigger than the cup and has millions and millions more water molecules. LAB MANUAL (EEN-751) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ... EEN-751/EEE-553: ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION LAB. RTD Simulators. • Balco (rare) \p !V�k�XE10��Nf�Tq̑�(�8������ Providing measured data for virtual lab experiments corresponding to the data previously obtained by measurements on an actual system. 3 0 obj <> Most RTDs are specified to be operated with a current of 1 milliampere or less. The acquired reading appears on the Temperature-Resistance graph as white Typical RTD polynomial equation. Always perform the experiments or work precisely as directed by the teacher. The resistance of the metal increases with temperature. Therefore Platinum is  selected for most of the applications. The maximum temperature the RTD attains, is same as the temperature displayed by 'GET Temp' tab. Its desirable characteristics include chemical stability, availability in a pure form, and electrical properties that are highly reproducible. The relationship between resistance and temperature of RTD can be approximated by the Callendar-Van Dusen equation which is given by,                  Rt / R0 = 1+ α [ t – δ((t/100)-1)(t/100) –β((t/100)-1)(t/100)3]                    Â. 22 ± 25 6. LAB MANUAL(V SEM ECE) Page 9 EXPERIMENT No.2 AIM:- TO study blockwise construction of a multimeter & frequency counter. 4.   Meaning of terms like process lag, positive and negative temperature coefficient, negative temperature, virtual temperature, etc. Turn the Fan ON by pressing ON the Fan Switch on the screen (Cooling Mode). RTDs can be made of different metals and have different resistances, but the most popular RTD is platinum and has a nominal resistance of 100ÊΩ at 0°ÊC. Fluke Corporation, Hart Scientific Division How to calibrate an RTD or Platinum Resistance Thermometer (PRT) 3 Table 2. Experiment 4: Sensor Bridge Circuits (tbc 1/11/2007, revised 2/20/2007, 2/28/2007, 2/3/2009,2/15/2009, 2/9/2011) Objective: To implement Wheatstone bridge circuits for temperature measurements using RTD (Resistance Temperature Detectors). DATE : 01/08/2016 PAGE / DEPTT. Therefore, the resistance of an object can be defined as the ratio of voltage to current, in accordance with Ohm’s Law:                                                    R = V/I, For measurement of Temperature number of sensors are available. <> Temperature is a measure of the average heat or thermal energy of the particles in a substance. This is important when replacing a sensor, to insure that the system retains its performance characteristics without any need for re-calibration. Manual typically contains practical/Lab Sessions related ... RTD Pt100/Pt500/Pt1000 (any two) b) RTD simulator 6. C = -4.183*10-12°C‾4  Stability is affected by sensor design. ii) A 4-bit binary parallel subtractor. Be careful when handling hot glassware and apparatus in the lab. endobj Never leave experiments while in progress. Temperature Coefficient :It is the change in resistance of the material per degree change in temperature. • Platinum (most popular and accurate) <>>> The commonly used other units of temperature are Degree Celsius (°C) and Degree Fahrenheit (°F). • This manual is a work in progress – a “living document” – and will be updated over time. The element is usually quite fragile, so it is often placed inside a sheathed probe to protect it. This value should be as high as possible to give higher accuracy of temperature measurement. Temperature calculations: : The very small cross-sectional areas in the sensing elements will tend to heat when electrical current is applied. Below are several general safety rules for all digital experiments … Inside the reactor, the reactants are continually consumed as the reactant flow along the length of the reactor. 5. – 02: -To determine tensile test on a metal. 2 ... (Tam figured out by experiment) V V V k output PT RA RB= − ×( )100 (2) The linear properties of RTD PT100: 11. The RTD element is made from a pure metals as mentioned below. 2. Tabulate the readings in the tabular column given below. The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of an electric current. Where, Experiment Page No. Measurement of displacement by inductive pickup NOTE: ATLEAST 10 EXPERIMENTS SHOULD BE CONDUCTED IN THE SEMESTER . 2. : Speed ( RPM ) Voltage 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500.! Coiled wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core values at specific temperatures of. Typically contains practical/Lab Sessions related... RTD Pt100/Pt500/Pt1000 ( any two ) b ) RTD simulator 6 Labs on Media. 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